Ab
NH3
atement Method: Dry scrub or wet scrub in acidic liquor
Ammonia Overview:
  • Ammonia is commonly used in household and industrial applications. It is both caustic and toxic and can cause heath or serious injury.
  • Anhydrous ammonia is especially dangerous
  • Ammonia is a colorless gas with a characteristic sharp and pungent odor
  • Ammonia does not burn readily in air or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% in air
Chemical Formula: NH3
Molecular Weight: 17.031 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive, forms hazardous byproducts
Incompatibles: Copper, silver, cadmium and zinc and their alloys; mercury, tin, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, halogens and oxidizers
Water Solubility: 47% (0 °C), 31% (25 °C), 28% (50 °C)
NFPA Ratings: Health=3, Fire=1, Reactivity=0
IDLH: 300 ppm
OSHA PEL: 50 ppm
ACGIH TWA: 25 ppm

Signs and Symptoms of Ammonia Exposure:
  • Burning of the eyes, nose, and throat after breathing even small amounts.
  • With higher doses, coughing or choking may occur.
  • Exposure to high levels of anhydrous ammonia can cause death from a swollen throat or from chemical burns to the lungs
AsH3
Abatement Method: Dry scrub only
Arsine Overview:
  • Arsine is extremely dangerous. Short term exposure can cause death or serious injury. Long term exposure can cause cancer, liver damage, kidney damage, and neurological damage
  • Arsine is a colorless, nonirritating toxic gas with a mild garlic odor. The odor can only be detected at levels greater than those necessary to cause poisoning
  • Arsine is formed when arsenic or arsenic oxides come in contact with an acid
  • Arsine is commonly used in the metal refining, semiconductor and photovoltaic industries
  • According to NIOSH (1979), inhalation of 250 ppm arsine is instantly lethal
Chemical Formula: AsH3
Molecular Weight: 77.95 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive, forms hazardous byproducts
Incompatibles: Oxidizing materials, halogens, combustible materials, acids
Water Solubility: 20% at 20 C
NFPA Ratings: Health=4, Fire=4, Reactivity=2
IDLH: 3 ppm
OSHA TWA: 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3)
ACGIH TWA: 0.005 ppm


Signs and Symptoms of Arsine Exposure:
At lower doses, victims may not realize that they have been exposed to arsine, because it may have no odor. At higher doses, a mild garlic odor has been reported. People exposed to a low or moderate dose of arsine may experience some or all of the following symptoms within 2 to 24 hours of exposure:
  • death
  • weakness
  • fatigue
  • headache
  • drowsiness
  • confusion
  • shortness of breath
  • rapid breathing
  • nausea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain
  • red or dark urine
  • yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • muscle cramps

Exposure to a large dose of arsine by any route may result in these additional health effects:

  • loss of consciousness
  • convulsions
  • paralysis
  • respiratory failure, possibly leading to death




Abatement Method: Dry scrub only
Diborane Overview:
  • Diborane is extremely dangerous. Short term exposure can cause death or serious injury.
  • Diborane is a colorless gas with a repulsive, sweet odor
Chemical Formula: B2H6
Molecular Weight: 27.67 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive, forms hazardous byproducts
Incompatibles: Water, halogenated compounds, aluminum, lithium, oxidized surfaces, acids. Will ignite spontaneously in moist air at room temperature. Reacts with water to form hydrogen & boric acid
Water Solubility: Reactive
NFPA Ratings: Health=4, Fire=4, Reactivity=3
IDLH: 15 ppm
OSHA TWA: 0.1 ppm
ACGIH TWA: 0.1 ppm

Signs and Symptoms of Diborane Exposure:
  • death
  • chest tightness
  • precordial pain
  • short breath
  • nonproductive cough
  • nausea
  • headache
  • dizziness
  • chills
  • fever
  • lassitude (weakness, exhaustion)
  • tremor
  • muscle fasciculation
  • liver, kidney damage
  • pulmonary edema
  • hemorrhage
GeH4
Abatement Method: Dry scrub only
Germane Overview:
  • Germane is extremely dangerous. Short term exposure can cause death or serious injury.
  • Germane is a colorless gas with a pungent odor
  • Germane is commonly used in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries
Chemical Formula: GeH4
Molecular Weight: 76.62 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive
Incompatibles: Oxidizing materials, halogens, combustible materials, acids
Water Solubility: Insoluble
NFPA Ratings: Health=4, Fire=4, Reactivity=3
IDLH: N.D. Treat as arsine
OSHA TWA: 0.2 ppm

Signs and Symptoms of Germane Exposure:
Germane irritates the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the blood , resulting in lesions of blood cells. Exposure may result in death.
  • death
  • malaise (vague feeling of discomfort)
  • headache
  • dizziness
  • fainting
  • dyspnea (breathing difficulty)
  • nausea, vomiting
  • kidney injury
  • hemolytic effects
Ab
H2Se
atement Method: Dry scrub only
Hydrogen selenide Overview:
  • Hydrogen selenide is extremely dangerous. Short term exposure can cause death or serious injury.
  • Hydrogen selenide is a colorless gas with a highly offensive odor
Chemical Formula: H2Se
Molecular Weight: 80.98 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive, forms hazardous byproducts
Incompatibles: Concentrated nitric acid, chlorine, nitrogen trifluoride, oxygen difluoride or other strong oxidizinq agents.
Water Solubility: Very slightly soluble (0.007 gram/milliliter)
NFPA Ratings: Health=4, Fire=4, Reactivity=3
IDLH: 1 ppm
OSHA TWA: 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3)
ACGIH TWA: 0.05 ppm

Signs and Symptoms of Hydrogen Selenide Exposure:
  • death
  • irritation of contacted area (possibly severe)
  • garlic smell to the breath
  • eye disorders
  • tooth decay
  • lack of sense of smell
  • metallic taste
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • cough
  • wheezing
  • difficulty breathing
  • headache
  • dizziness
  • fatigue
  • lassitude
  • emotional disturbances
  • lung congestion
  • tremors
  • bluish skin color
  • pulmonary edema (effects may be delayed),
  • effects on spleen
  • lung damage
  • liver damage

Ab
H2S
atement Method: Dry scrub or water scrub with high concentration of strong base
Arsine Overview:
  • Just a few breaths of air containing high levels of hydrogen sulfide (500 ppm) gas can cause unconsciousness and death
  • Lower, longer-term exposure to hydrogen sulfide can cause eye irritation, headache, and fatigue
  • Hydrogen sulfide is a flammable, colorless gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs
  • Hydrogen sulfide can be smelled at low concentrations but odor cannot be relied on as an adequate warning because exposure causes olfactory fatigue
  • When released as a gas, it will change into sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid
  • Exposure to hydrogen sulfide may cause permanent or long-term effects such as headaches, poor attention span, poor memory, and poor motor function (CDC)
Chemical Formula: H2S
Molecular Weight: 34.08 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive, forms hazardous byproducts
Incompatibles: Hydrogen Sulfide is a strong reducing agent and is highly
reactive. Hydrogen Sulfide is incompatible with: oxidizing agents, organic
peroxides, alkaline materials, metals, and metal oxides. Hydrogen Sulfide is
corrosive to most metals, because it reacts with these substances to form metal sulfides
Water Solubility: 0.317 lb/gal at 20 C
NFPA Ratings: Health=4, Fire=4, Reactivity=0
IDLH: 100 ppm
OSHA PEL: 20 ppm (10 minutes)
ACGIH TWA: 10 ppm

Signs and Symptoms of Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure:
Victims may not realize that they have been exposed because olfactory fatigue (loss of sense of smell) occurs at low exposure limits. Symptoms of expose include:
  • death
  • irritation to eyes, respiratory system
  • apnea
  • coma
  • convulsions
  • conjunctivitis
  • eye pain
  • lacrimation (discharge of tears)
  • photophobia (abnormal visual intolerance to light)
  • corneal vesiculation
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • lassitude (weakness, exhaustion)
  • irritability
  • insomnia
  • gastrointestinal disturbance

Ab
PH3
atement Method: Dry scrub only
Phosphine Overview:
  • Phosphine is extremely dangerous. Short term exposure can cause death or serious injury
  • Phosphine is extremely toxic, flammable, and is often pyrophoric due to the fact that it is almost always contaminated with diphosphine
  • Pure phosphine is odorless but technical grade samples have an unpleasant odor like garlic or rotting fish from the presence of substituted phosphine and diphosphine (P2H4). With traces of P2H4 present, PH3 is pyrophoric
  • Phosphine is commonly used in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries
Chemical Formula: PH3
Molecular Weight: 34.00 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive
Incompatibles: Air, oxidizers, chlorine, acids, moisture, halogenated hydrocarbons, copper [Note: May ignite SPONTANEOUSLY on contact with air.]
Water Solubility: 31.2 mg/100 ml (17 °C)
NFPA Ratings: Health=4, Fire=4, Reactivity=2
IDLH: 50 ppm
OSHA TWA: 0.3 ppm

Signs and Symptoms of Phosphine Exposure:

Phosphine is a respiratory tract irritant that attacks primarily the cardiovascular and respiratory systems causing peripheral vascular collapse, cardiac arrest and failure, and pulmonary edema
  • death
  • cardiac arrest
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • thirst
  • chest tightness
  • dyspnea (breathing difficulty)
  • muscle pain
  • chills
  • stupor or syncope
  • pulmonary edema
Aba
SiH4
tement Method: Dry scrub or thermal oxidation
Silane Overview:
  • Silane is a colorless, pyrophoric gas, with a choking effect
  • Silane usually ignites upon contact with air, releasing a dense white cloud of amorphous silicon dioxide
  • Silane can react with water to form corrosive silicic acid.
  • Silane is commonly used in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries
Chemical Formula: SiH4
Molecular Weight: 32.12 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely flammable, pyrophoric, explosive
Incompatibles: Air, oxidizers, halogens, and water
Water Solubility: Reacts slowly
NFPA Ratings: Health=0, Fire=4, Reactivity=0
IDLH: 100 ppm
OSHA TWA: 5 ppm
ACGIH TWA: 5 ppm

Signs and Symptoms of Silane Exposure:
The primary health hazard associated with Silane is the potential for severe thermal burns from the spontaneous ignition of this gas. Depending on the severity of the burns, such exposures can be fatal

Abatement Method: Dry scrub only
Phosphine Overview:
  • Stibine is extremely dangerous. Short term exposure can cause death or serious injury
  • Stibine is extremely toxic, flammable, and is often pyrophoric due to the fact that it is almost always contaminated with diphosphine
  • Stibine is a colorless gas with the odor of rotten eggs
  • Stibine is used in the semiconductor industry to manufacture microchips. Also, welding, soldering, refining, galvanising and etching may lead to the accidental formation of stibine. Overcharging of lead storage batteries can also lead to the production of stibine
Chemical Formula: SbH3
Molecular Weight: 124.78 gram/mole
Risks: Extremely toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, potentially explosive
Incompatibles: Acids, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxidizers, moisture, chlorine, ozone, ammonia
Water Solubility: Insoluble
NFPA Ratings: Health=4, Fire=4, Reactivity=2
IDLH: 5 ppm
OSHA PEL: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3)
NIOSH REL: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3)

Signs and Symptoms of Stibine Exposure:

  • death
  • headache
  • lassitude (weakness, exhaustion)
  • nausea
  • abdominal pain
  • lumbar pain
  • hematuria (blood in the urine)
  • hemolytic anemia
  • jaundice
  • pulmonary irritation